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1、Dwarfed by the vast expanse of the open ocean因為海洋的遼闊而顯得渺小的the biggest animal that has ever lived on our planet.是這個星球上最巨大的生物A blue whale, 30 metres long and weighing over 200 tonnes藍鯨,身長30公尺 體重超過200公噸♥lts far bigger than even the biggest dinosaur它身型的巨大 遠超過體型最大的恐龍lts tongue weighs as much as an

2、 elephant它的舌頭有一頭大象那么重lts heart is the size of a car心臟約是一臺車的大小And some of its blood vessels are so wide that you could swim down them它身上的某些血管寬到 可以讓我們從中游過lts tail alone is the width of a small aircraft wings光是他的尾鰭 就有一臺小飛機的機翼那么寬lts streamlining, close to perfection, enables it to cruise at twenty knots

3、藍鯨的流線身形接近完美 讓它能夠以20海里的速度航行lts one of the fastest animals in the sea是海洋中速度最快的動物之一The oceans largest inhabitant feeds Almost exclusively on one of the smallest身為海洋中體積最大的動物藍鯨賴以 維生的卻是海洋中最小的生物之一krill, a crustacean just a few centimetres long磷蝦是一種 身長只有幾公厘的甲殼類動物Gathered in a shoal, krill stain the sea red

4、and a single blue磷蝦會在淺灘聚集 將海面染成一片紅色whale in a day can consume forty million of them一只藍鯨可以在一天之內 吃下4千萬只磷蝦Despite the enormous size of blue whales, we know very little about them相較于它身型的龐大 我們對藍鯨的了解卻是微乎其微Their migration routes are still a mystery and它們遷徙的路線仍然成謎we have absolutely no idea where they go to

5、breed人們完全不知道 藍鯨的繁殖的地點在哪里They are a dramatic reminder of how much藍鯨的存在 強烈地提醒我們we still have to learn about the ocean and the creatures that live there對海洋及海洋中的生物 所知實在有限Our planet is a blue planet我們的星球是一個藍色的星球Over seventy percent of it is covered by the sea地表有70%是被水所覆蓋The Pacific Ocean alone covers hal

6、f the globe光是太平洋就覆蓋了半個地球You can fly across it non-stop for twelve hours即使坐上飛機 橫越太平洋連續飛行12小時and still see nothing more than a speck of land除了遠方小點般大的陸地外 看到的仍是一望無際的海洋This series will reveal the complete natural history of our ocean planet from這一個系列的影片 將為您完全揭開its familiar shores to the mysteries of its

7、deepest seas我們這個海洋星球的自然歷史By volume,the ocean makes up 97% of the earth inhabitable space從我們所熟悉的陸地 到神秘的海洋深淵 以容量來算 海洋占去地球97%的可居地And the sheer quantity of marine life it contains far exceeds that which inhabits the land海洋中孕育的生物數量 遠遠超過陸地生物的數量But life in the ocean is not evenly spread.但是生物在海洋中的分布 并不平均lts

8、 regulated by the path of currents carrying nutrients海洋生物的分布 是依據飽含養份的洋流的流向and the varying power of the sun以及陽光的強度而定ln this first programme we will see how these two forces interact在第一集的節目中我們將會看到 這兩種力量如何交互作用to control the distribution of life from the coral seas .to the polar wastes從珊瑚礁海域到極帶 控制海洋中生物分

9、布The sheer physical power of the ocean dominates our planet海洋純粹的力量 掌控著我們的星球lt profoundly influences the weather of all the world對全球的天氣有絕對的影響Water vapour rising from it forms the clouds水氣從海洋中升起 到天上變成了云and generates the storms that ultimately will drench the land風起云涌卷起了風暴 最后化成甘霖落在陸地上The great waves th

10、at roar in towards the shores狂嘯著打向海岸的海浪are dramatic demonstrations of its power就是海洋力量 最強有力的證明Waves originate far out at sea海浪從海洋遠處而起There, even gentle breezes can cause ripples在那里,就連輕柔的微風 都能勾起漣漪and ripples grow into swells而漣漪,會漸漸變成海浪Out in the open ocean, unimpeded by land, such swells can become gi

11、gantic在一片汪♥洋♥中,沒有陸地的阻礙 小風浪最后變成滔天巨浪lts only when an ocean swell eventually reaches shallow water海浪一直要到了淺水區that it starts to break才會開始散開As it approaches the coast海浪在向陸地接近的同時the water at the bottom of the swell is slowed by contact with the sea bed下面的部分 因為與陸地的接觸流速變慢The top of the swell, s

12、till travelling fast,上面的部分則仍以高速前進starts to roll over and so the wave breaks最后翻過下面的部分 使浪形散開The ocean never rests.海洋流動不息Huge currents, such as the Gulf Stream,巨大的洋流,像是墨西哥灣流keep its waters constantly on the move all round the globe讓海水在地球上循環流動不息lts these currents more than any other factor這些洋流,是控制海洋中tha

13、t control the distribution of nutrients and life in the seas生物及養分分布的主力 其影響遠大于其他因素A tiny island lost in the midst of the Pacific一座迷失在太平洋中♥央♥的小島lts the tip of a huge mountain它是一座巨大高山的山頂that rises precipitously from the sea floor thousands of metres below從幾千公尺的海底 陡然地升出海面The nearest land i

14、s three hundred miles away最近的陸地離它有300英里遠lsolated sea mounts like this one create oases像這樣孤立的海底山 創造出了海上綠洲where life can flourish.讓生命能夠在in the comparatively empty expanses of the open ocean一望無際的汪♥洋♥中孕育不息But all the creatures that swim beside it would但是這些在四周游動的生物 如果沒有這一樣要素not be here were

15、 it not for one key factor - the deep ocean currents就根本不會出現在這里 那就是深海洋流Far below the surface they collide with the islands flanks在深深的水底洋流and are deflected upwards與小島的側邊相撞bringing with them from the depths a rich soup of nutrients帶著來自深海的 豐富養分向上偏轉Such up-wellings attract great concentrations of life向上偏

16、轉的洋流 吸引了豐富的生命聚集Most of the fish here are permanent residents,這里大部分魚類都是永久居民feeding on the plankton, the tiny floating plants and animals that are nourished以浮游生物為食,浮游生物是 懸浮在海水中的植物及動物by the richness brought up from the depths已被洋流從深海中 帶上來的養分為生And they in turn, attract visitors from the open ocean這些生物也吸引

17、了 從海上而來的過客停留Tuna.鮪魚The plankton feeders are easy targets吃浮游生物的動物 是最好的目標All this action attracts even larger predators.這些海洋里的活動 吸引了其他更大型的撩食者Sharks!鯊魚Hundreds of sharks.幾百只的鯊魚These silky sharks are normally ocean-going species平滑白眼鮫通常在海上旅行but the sea mounts in the eastern Pacific,但是在東太平洋like Cocos, Mal

18、pelo and the Galapagos,像可可島,莫裴洛島 加拉巴哥群島這一類的海底山attract silkies in huge groups up to five hundred strong吸引平滑白眼鮫成群出沒 數量甚至接近500只Silkies seem to specialize in taking injured fish平滑白眼鮫 特別擅長捕捉受傷的魚and constantly circle sea mounts on the look out for the chance to do so經常在海底山巡游找尋機會But Silkies are not the onl

19、y visitors這里的訪客可不只平滑白眼鮫Hammerheads gather in some of the largest shark丫髻鮫會聚集成shoals to be found anywhere in the ocean海洋上最大的鯊群Sometimes thousands will circle over a single sea mount有時候會有上千只鯊魚 同時繞著一座海底山巡游But these sharks are not here for food但是食物不是它們 群聚在此的理由They have come for another reason而是另有原因Some

20、of the locals provide a cleaning service一些在地的生物 可以為它們做清潔的服務Following the last El Nino year,緊接著上一個圣嬰年when a rise in water temperatures溫度的升高caused many sharks to suffer from fungal infections,讓許多鯊魚飽受霉菌感染之苦the number of hammerheads visiting the sea mounts reached record levels而丫髻鮫來到海底山的數量 也創下紀錄Nutrient

21、s also well up to the surface along the coasts of the continents海底上來的養分 可以抵達各大洲的海岸This is Natal on South Africas eastern seaboard這里是位于南非東岸的納塔爾lts June and just off-shore, strange black patches have appeared現在是六月,而就在海邊不遠處 奇怪的黑斑塊出現了They look like immense oil slicks up to a mile long看起來像一大♥片&hea

22、rts;油污綿延數里But this is a living slick這其實是一條有生命的滑帶Millions and millions of sardines on a marine千百萬的沙丁魚migration that in terms of sheer biomass其生物量足以與rivals that of the wildebeest on the grasslands of Africa非洲草原上的羚羊匹敵These fish live for most of the time這些魚群大部分的時間in the cold waters south of the Cape,都生活

23、在好望角以南的冷水中but each year the coastal currents reverse但是沿岸流每年都會轉向The warm Agulhas current that通常由北而下usually flows down from the north溫暖的安哥拉海流has been displaced by cold water coming up from the south被從南而上 帶有豐富營養的冷海水所取代and that has brought up rich nutrients這些冷海水造就了They, in turn, have created a bloom of

24、plankton豐富的浮游生物and the sardines are now feasting on it這些沙丁魚則正在享用大餐As the sardines travel north,沙丁魚向北游的同時a whole caravan of predators follow them一大群掠食者緊隨在后Thousands of Cape Gannets track the sardines幾千只好望角塘鵝 緊盯著這些沙丁魚They nested off the Cape它們在好望角筑巢and timed their breeding so that their newly-fledged

25、chicks算好時間生育 這樣它們羽翼初豐的幼鳥can join them in pursuing the shoals可以隨它們一起追逐魚群Below water, hundreds of sharks have also joined the caravan在海底,數百只鯊魚也加入了These are Bronze whaler sharks,短尾白眼鮫a cold water species that normally lives much further south是一種生活在冷水中的鯊魚 通常棲息在更遠的南邊These three-metre sharks cut such grea

26、t swathes這些身長3公尺的鯊魚 可以在豐厚的沙丁魚中through the sardine shoals that their tracks are clearly visible from the air切出一道從空中 也清楚可見的通道Harried by packs of predators and swept in by the action of the waves,被這些掠食者 及海浪沖擊的沙丁魚群the sardine shoals are penned close to the shore漸漸被導近了海岸Common dolphin are coming in from

27、the open ocean to join the feast真海豚也從海上來到加入盛宴There are over a thousand of them in this one school這一群就有一千只以上When they catch up with the sardines, the action really begins當它們趕上沙丁魚時 行動才真正開始Working together, they drive the shoal towards the surface它們會全體合作 將魚群趕到靠近水面的地方lt is easier for the dolphins to sna

28、tch fish up here海豚在靠水面的地方 比較容易捕捉到魚Now the sardines have no escape這些沙丁魚無處可逃了Thanks to the dolphins, the sardines have come within the diving range of the gannets因為海豚的幫忙,這些沙丁魚游到了 塘鵝潛水的深度范圍Hundreds of white arrows shoot into the sea,好幾百只白色羽箭射入水里leaving long trails of bubbles behind each dive在身后留下一道道長長的

29、泡沫Next to join the frenzy are the sharks接著加入這場混戰的是鯊魚Sharks get very excited when dolphins are around有海豚在附近 鯊魚就會變得興奮異常That may be because they can feed particularly.也許是海豚會將這些沙丁魚 趕到水面附近well once the dolphins have driven形成更緊密的魚群the sardines into more compact groups near the surface讓鯊魚們吃的更好更順利As the fre

30、nzy continues walls of bubbles drift upwards混戰當中 一道道泡沫墻向上浮起They are being released by the dolphins, working together in teams這是結隊合作的海豚所釋放的They use the bubbles to corral the sardines into ever tighter groups它們利用這些泡沫 將沙丁魚趕成更緊密的魚群The sardines seldom cross the wall of bubbles and crowd closer together沙丁

31、魚很少會跨過泡沫墻 所以只好更緊密地靠在一起Bubble netting in this way enables the dolphins to grab every last trapped sardine這樣的泡沫網,讓海豚可以 吃到每一只受困的沙丁魚Just when the feasting seems to be almost over,就在大餐快要結束之時a Bryde whale arrives一只布氏鯨抵達The survivors head on northwards,幸存者繼續往北方前進and the caravan of predators follows them這群掠

32、食者則跟隨在后Nutrients can also be brought up海底的養分也可以在though less predictably較無法預測的情況下 by rough weather被惡劣的天氣帶上來Particularly near the poles,尤其是接近極圈的地方huge storms stir the depths and強烈的風暴翻攪深海enrich the surface waters and here,帶給海面上的水養分in the South Atlantic, the seas are the roughest on the planet而在南極,這里的海水

33、 是地球上最險惡的And very rich seas they are too, for here,它們同時也富含非常多的養份,在這里the cold Falklands current from the South來自南方的 寒冷??颂m洋流meets the warm Brazil current from the North與來自北方的 溫暖巴西洋流相遇and at their junction there is food in abundance就在它們交會處 孕藏了豐富的食物These Black-browed albatross are duck-diving這些黑眉信天翁 像鴨子

34、潛水一樣for krill that has been driven up to the surface找尋著被水流帶到水面的磷蝦Like all albatross,就像所有的信天翁一樣Black-brows are wanderers across the face of the open ocean黑眉信天翁 也是大海上的流浪者A feeding assembly on this scale is a rare sight這種規模的群集獵食 是很少見的Most of the time,大部分時候the birds of the open sea are widely dispersed大

35、海上的鳥類 都是相當分散的But these feeding grounds are close to an albatross breeding colony但是這個捕食場 很靠近一個信天翁生育的殖民地and a very special one而且是很特別的一個This is Steeple Jason, a remote island in the far west of the Falklands這里是杰生尖塔,位于??颂m群島 遙遠西邊的偏遠小島lt has the largest albatross colony in the world在這里有世上最大的 信天翁殖民地There a

36、re almost half a million albatross here這里住了近50萬只的信天翁an astonishing demonstration of這又是一場驚人的示范how fertile the ocean can be告訴我們海洋養分的豐富and how much food it can give even to creatures that do not actually live in it以及它所能提供的食物量甚至可以 供給不住在海中的生物食用Nutrients by themselves are not enough to generate these vast

37、 assemblies.要產生這么大的群體 光靠養分是不夠的The heat and light that the sun brings everyday陽光每日所帶來的 光亮與熱能is also essential for the growth of the microscopic floating plants也是微小的浮游生物the phytoplankton成長所必須要的And it the phytoplankton浮游生物則是that is the basis of all life in the ocean所有海洋生命的基礎Every evening, the disappear

38、ance of the sun每天,當太陽消失在地平線時below the horizon triggers the largest就觸動了地球上migration of life that takes place on our planet最龐大的生命遷徙One thousand million tones of sea creatures十億公噸♥的海洋生物ascend from the deep ocean to search for food near the surface從深海中升起到 靠近水面的地方尋找食物They graze on the phytoplankto

39、n under cover of darkness在黑夜的掩護下 吃著浮游生物Even so, they are far from safe雖然如此 它們的生命還是一點也不安全Other marine hunters follow them,其他海洋中的獵食者尾隨而至some travelling up from hundreds of metres below有些來自好幾百公尺深的水中At dawn, the whole procession returns to the safety of the dark depths在破曉時,整個隊伍 回到深幽海水安全的懷抱The moon too h

40、as a great influence on life in the oceans月亮對海中的生物 也有很大的影響lts gravitational pull creates the daily advance and retreat of the tides月球的引力 造成每日潮汐的漲退But the moon has more than a daily cycle但月亮循環不只是Each month it waxes and wanes as it travels around the earth,每日的盈缺變化而已and this monthly cycle also triggers

41、 events in the ocean它的月循環 也會引發海洋上的變化The Pacific Coast of Costa Rica on a very special night哥斯大黎加的太平洋沿岸 這是個特別的夜晚lt just after midnight and the tide is coming in現在午夜剛過,才正要漲潮The moon is in its last quarter,下弦月exactly half way between full and new剛好在滿月與新月中間For weeks the beach has been empty But that is

42、about to change海灘已經空了好幾個禮拜 但是一切都要改變了At high tide, turtles start to emerge from the surf一陣大浪打來 烏龜也開始從水底出現了At first they come in ones and twos, but within a hour,剛開始時只有一兩只 但在接下來一個小時內they are appearing all along the beach海灘上就滿滿都是了They are all female Ridley turtles它們都是雌的欖蠵龜and over the next six days or

43、so在接下來的6天多中four hundred thousand will visit this one beach有40萬只欖蠵龜 會一起來到這座海灘to lay their eggs in the sand在沙中產卵At the peak time, five thousand are coming and going every hour在尖峰時刻 每小時會有5千只烏龜來去The top of the beach gets so crowded that海灘上是如此擁擠they have to clamber over one another to find a bare patch它們

44、要爬過同伴的身體前進where they can dig a nest hole才能找到一塊 可以挖土產卵的地方A quarter of the world population世界上有四分之一的綠蠵龜of Ridley turtles come to this one beach每年會在一些特定的夜晚on a few key nights each year到這個海灘來The rest of the time, they are widely distributed through the ocean其它時候它們則 分散在海上各處尋找食物searching for food, most -a

45、 hundreds of miles away from here最遠的生活在 離此好幾百里遠的地方This mass nesting is called an arribada這種大量群集筑巢的習性 叫做集體上岸產卵How it is co-ordinated is a mystery這個活動如何組成,至今成謎but we do know thats arribadas start但我們已經知道when the moon is either in its first or its last quarter集體產卵發生在上弦月 或是下弦月時Forty million eggs are laid

46、 in just a few days它們在幾天之內 就產下了4千萬顆蛋By synchronising their nesting in this way這些母綠蠵龜the females ensure that six weeks later將生產日期同步化their hatchlings will emerge in such enormous.就可以確保 孵化出的小龜數量龐大numbers that predators on the beach海灘上的掠食者吃都吃不完are overwhelmed and a significant proportion這樣就會有一定數量的小烏龜of

47、the baby turtles will get past them and make it to the water可以逃過魔爪,安全抵達大海But why do the females use a cue from the moon為什么母龜要用月的盈缺to help in synchronising their nesting?做一同產卵的暗號♥?Part of the answer to that becomes clear at dawn on the following morning部分的答案在隔日破曉時 就可以一窺究竟The day shift of preda

48、tors are arriving for their first meals早晨的掠食者剛抵達 正要享用第一頓餐食Vultures have learnt that the returning tide退潮會將沙子洗去 露出剛產下的蛋的道理can wash freshly laid eggs out of the sand禿鷹老早就懂了蛋會因為潮汐The risk of eggs being exposed by the surf而暴露在外的危險may be part of the reason why turtle arribadas也許是讓烏龜的集體tend to occur aroun

49、d the last or first quarter of the moon在上弦或下弦月時 產卵的原因之一lts on such days as this, when the moon is neither full nor new,在這個時候 月亮不是滿月也不是新月that the tides are weakest and the sea is likely to be calmer潮汐是最弱的 海上也比較平靜So at these times, it easier for the female turtles在這段時間,母龜to make their way through the

50、surf可以克服海浪來到水面上and there less chance of their eggs而它們產下的蛋being washed out of the sand and being taken by the vultures也比較不會因沖刷而暴露在外 而被禿鷹吃掉The moon monthly cycle and its influence on the tides triggers月亮每個月的循環 及它對潮汐的影響many events in the ocean, from the spawning of the corals引發了一連串的海洋生態事件on the Great B

51、arrier reef to the breeding cycles of fish從大堡礁珊瑚的產卵 到魚類繁殖的循環But there an even longer rhythm但是還有一個更長的節奏that has the most profound effect of all帶給一切事物最全面的影響the annual cycle of the sun就是太陽的年周期The sun position relative to the earth changes太陽與地球的相對位置through the year and it this that produces the seasons在

52、一年當中不斷改變 這也是造成季節的原因ln the north, spring comes as the sun begins to rise higher in the sky在北方,當太陽開始升得越來越高 就表示春天來了Off the coast of North West America,就在西北美的岸邊the seas are transformed by the increasing strength of the sunshine海洋因為 太陽不斷增加的強度而改變了Here in Alaska the coastal waters turn在阿♥拉♥斯加

53、,海岸的水域green with a sudden bloom of phytoplankton因為浮游生物突然暴增而變綠Herring that have spent the winter far out to sea,在深遠的大海中 度過冬天的鯡魚time their return to the shallow waters to coincide with this bloom算好了回到淺水域的時間 好碰上浮游生物的大繁殖They come in vast numbers and initiate它們以驚人的數量靠近one of the most productive food chai

54、ns in all the oceans并開啟了海洋中 最具生產力的食物鏈Humpback whales are at the top of that food chain座頭鯨就在食物鏈的最頂端They have spent the winter breeding in the warmer tropical waters off Hawaii春天時她們會在熱帶 溫暖的夏威夷水域中生育But there was little food for them there但是那里的食物太少This herring bonanza provides the vast majority of their

55、 food for the year這群鯡魚提供了它們 全年大部分的食物來源Stellar and Californian sea lions北方海獅與加州海獅also return from the open ocean each year to feast off the herring每年也會從海上回來 享用這些鯡魚The herring themselves, however, have not come here for food鯡魚本身則不是為了食物而來They are about to breed它們正要開始繁殖Nothing deters them as they head f

56、or even shallower waters它們繼續往更淺的水域前近 沒有任何東西可以阻擋它們Now the waters are so shallow that glaucous這里的水更淺winged gulls are able to snatch live fish from just below the surface綠灰翅鷗甚至可以 直接從水面下截取活魚ln spite of these attacks and losses,不理會這些攻擊及折損the herring swim on until鯡魚繼續前進they reach the vegetation that the females直到抵達母魚need if they are to lay賴以產卵的植被層為止Each female produces around twenty thousand

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